Your pancreas requires the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) to operate properly, and GAD antibodies target this enzyme.
An antibody is a protein your immune system produces to combat foreign substances. However, sometimes the immune system produces autoantibodies, which start attacking normal and non-harmful cells. When this happens, an autoimmune disease develops.
GAD autoantibodies are found in the blood of around 75% of people with type 1 diabetes. Therefore, you can take a Gad 65 antibody test to diagnose your diabetes.
Purpose of the GAD65 Antibody Test:
To diagnose diabetes, your doctor will utilize diagnostic methods such as blood glucose testing and HbA1c levels. Once diabetes has been diagnosed, they will establish if it is type 1 or type 2.
Your doctor may conduct a Gad 65 antibody test to learn more about your issue. This test may also be referred to as GAD or anti-GAD. Also, your doctor may suggest an autoantibody panel to screen for GAD and other antibodies.
Other antibodies linked to type 1 diabetes are:
● Cytoplasmic autoantibodies in islet cells (icas)
● Insulin autoantibodies (IA-2As) are insulin autoantibodies (iaas) that are more frequent in children than adults.
These tests are performed using a simple blood sample that does not require fasting. Instead, a medical professional will draw blood from a vein in your arm and send it to a laboratory.
If you have GAD or other autoantibodies, you most certainly have type 1 diabetes. If no GAD or other autoantibodies are detected, you are most likely type 2.
What is the source of elevated GAD antibody levels?
A breakdown in the immune system causes type 1 diabetes. The disease begins when your immune system targets and destroys beta cells in your pancreas. These cells are responsible for insulin production, a hormone required for blood glucose regulation.
Pancreatic beta cells cannot be restored once your immune system has destroyed them, and without insulin, glucose accumulates in your blood, depriving your cells of energy. As a result, your pancreas may not produce enough insulin, or your body may not use it adequately in type 2 diabetes.
Insulin resistance is the first sign of type 2 diabetes. GAD autoantibodies imply an immune system assault, which suggests type 1 diabetes.
However, GAD autoantibodies are not exclusively seen in people with type 1 diabetes. These have also been associated with the following conditions:
1 Ataxia of the cerebellum: This neurological condition produces uncoordinated muscular action.
2 Syndrome of the stiff: This neurological disease produces muscular stiffness and spasms.
3 Additional autoimmune disorders: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and thyroid illness are two examples.
Will having GAD antibodies create any symptoms?
If you have a Gad 65 antibody test, you’ve probably experienced diabetic symptoms or been diagnosed with diabetes.
Diabetes symptoms include the following:
1 Extreme thirst and hunger
2. Irritation due to frequent urination
3 Tiredness, weakness, blurry vision
4 Weight loss cuts or sores that are difficult to heal
Is diabetes curable?
Yes. However, if you leave it untreated, it can lead to significant and even fatal consequences, such as-
1 For Example Your Vision issues
2 Such as Injury to the nerves
3 Coronary artery disease
4 Such as kidney harm
Diabetes can be successfully controlled in both types 1 and 2. The primary objective is to keep your blood glucose levels in check. This will aid in the prevention of various diabetic problems.
➢ Diet Control:
○ Diabetes control requires a healthy diet. You must keep your glucose levels within an appropriate range throughout the day. Your doctor will advise you on a diet that is strong in nutritional content but low in empty calories.
➢ Exercising Daily:
○ Another strategy to check your blood glucose levels is frequent physical exercise.
➢ Proper Medication:
○ You may require medication if you have type 2 diabetes. If you do, numerous oral drugs can help you keep your glucose levels under control.
○ Insulin treatment is required for all persons with type 1 diabetes and some people with type 2 diabetes. This necessitates monitoring your blood glucose levels to determine your required insulin.
○ Insulin treatment consists of injecting insulin just beneath the skin. To avoid skin discomfort, alternate injection locations.
○ Some insulins are designed to operate fast and last for a limited period. Others are intended to have a long-acting time. Your doctor will tell you when and how to utilize each type if you have GAD or other autoantibodies, you most certainly have type 1 diabetes. If no GAD or other autoantibodies are detected, you are most likely type 2.
○ You can also use an insulin pump, a gadget you wear on your body. The pump makes it easy to administer insulin when needed. This is especially beneficial if you have type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes and require insulin shots multiple times daily.
○ Your treatment strategy may evolve. Your doctor will also need to handle any diabetic issues you may have. Therefore, These tests are performed using a simple blood sample that does not require fasting. Instead, a medical professional will draw blood from a vein in your arm and send it to a laboratory.